Publications

Scientific Publications

The following scientific publications are related to Global Surveillance and the associated projects.

Worldwide human mitochondrial haplogroup distribution from urban sewage
Pipek et al. 2019

Community level genetic information can be essential to direct health measures and study demographic tendencies but is subject to considerable ethical and legal challenges. These concerns become less pronounced when analyzing urban sewage samples, which are ab ovo anonymous by their pooled nature. We were able to detect traces of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in urban sewage samples and to estimate the distribution of human mtDNA haplogroups. An expectation maximization approach was used to determine mtDNA haplogroup mixture proportions for samples collected at each different geographic location. Our results show reasonable agreement with both previous studies of ancient evolution or migration and current US census data; and are also readily reproducible and highly robust. Our approach presents a promising alternative for sample collection in studies focusing on the ethnic and genetic composition of populations or diseases associated with different mtDNA haplogroups and genotypes.

DOI:   https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-48093-5     12-08-2019

Global phylogeography and ancient evolution of the widespread human gut virus crAssphage
Edwards et al. 2019

Microbiomes are vast communities of microorganisms and viruses that populate all natural ecosystems. Viruses have been considered to be the most variable component of microbiomes, as supported by virome surveys and examples of high genomic mosaicism. However, recent evidence suggests that the human gut virome is remarkably stable compared with that of other environments. Here, we investigate the origin, evolution and epidemiology of crAssphage, a widespread human gut virus. Through a global collaboration, we obtained DNA sequences of crAssphage from more than one-third of the world’s countries and showed that the phylogeography of crAssphage is locally clustered within countries, cities and individuals.

DOI:   https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-019-0494-6   08-07-2019

Abundance and diversity of the faecal resistome in slaughter pigs and broilers in nine European countries
Munk et al. 2018

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria and associated human morbidity and mortality is increasing. The use of antimicrobials in livestock selects for AMR that can subsequently be transferred to humans. This flow of AMR between reservoirs demands surveillance in livestock and in humans. We quantified and characterized the acquired resistance gene pools (resistomes) of 181 pig and 178 poultry farms from nine European countries, sequencing more than 5,000 Gb of DNA using shotgun metagenomics. We quantified acquired AMR using the ResFinder database and a second database constructed for this study, consisting of AMR genes identified through screening environmental DNA. The pig and poultry resistomes were very different in abundance and composition. There was a significant country effect on the resistomes, more so in pigs than in poultry. We found higher AMR loads in pigs, whereas poultry resistomes were more diverse. We detected several recently described, critical AMR genes, including mcr-1 and optrA, the abundance of which differed both between host species and between countries. We found that the total acquired AMR level was associated with the overall country-specific antimicrobial usage in livestock and that countries with comparable usage patterns had similar resistomes. However, functionally determined AMR genes were not associated with total drug use.

DOI:    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0192-9      23 July 2018

Meta-genomic analysis of toilet waste from long distance flights; a step towards global surveillance of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance
Petersen et al. 2015

Human populations worldwide are increasingly confronted with infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance spreading faster and appearing more frequently. Knowledge regarding their occurrence and worldwide transmission is important to control outbreaks and prevent epidemics. Here, we performed shotgun sequencing of toilet waste from 18 international airplanes arriving in Copenhagen, Denmark, from nine cities in three world regions. An average of 18.6 Gb (14.8 to 25.7 Gb) of raw Illumina paired end sequence data was generated, cleaned, trimmed and mapped against reference sequence databases for bacteria and antimicrobial resistance genes. An average of 106,839 (0.06%) reads were assigned to resistance genes with genes encoding resistance to tetracycline, macrolide and beta-lactam resistance genes as the most abundant in all samples. We found significantly higher abundance and diversity of genes encoding antimicrobial resistance, including critical important resistance (e.g. blaCTX-M) carried on airplanes from South Asia compared to North America. Presence of Salmonella enterica and norovirus were also detected in higher amounts from South Asia, whereas Clostridium difficile was most abundant in samples from North America. Our study provides a first step towards a potential novel strategy for global surveillance enabling simultaneous detection of multiple human health threatening genetic elements, infectious agents and resistance genes.

DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep11444       10 July 2015

http://www.globalsurveillance.eu/publications
23 SEPTEMBER 2019